Changsha is a city in south-central China and the provincial capital of Hunan province. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010 Census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population.
Changsha is located in the Xiang River valley plain, bordering on Luoxiao Mountains on the east, Wuling Mountains on the west, edging in Dongting Lake on the north and bounded on the south by Hengshan Mountains. It has a moist monsoon climate of the subtropical zone. The average annual air temperature is 16.8–17.3 °C and the rainfall 1,358.6–1,552.5 mm.
Changsha is a famous historical and cultural city with a history of over 3,000 years. Changsha is famous for being the capital of Changsha State in the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), and the capital of Chu State (907–951) in Ten Kingdoms period. In 1904, Changsha was opened to foreign trade, and large numbers of Europeans and Americans settled there. Changsha was the site of Mao Zedong's conversion to communism. It was also the scene of major battles in the Sino-Japanese War (1931–1945) and was briefly occupied by the Japanese. Nowadays, Changsha is an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation center in China.
Changsha is located in the south-central part of China, south of the Yangtze River, north-east of Hunan Province. Is located in the southern end of the Dongting Plain to the hinterland of Hunan transition zone, and Yueyang, Yiyang, Loudi, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan and Jiangxi Pingxiang borders. The total area of 11,819 square kilometers, of which the urban area of 1,939 square kilometers, urban built-up area of 306.39 square kilometers (2011 data, including Wangcheng). Located in Liuyang territory of the Dawei Mountain Qixingling 1607.9 meters above sea level, the highest point for the area; in the town of the town of Heimi peak 590.5 meters above sea level for the city to the highest point; Qiao town in Zhanhu elevation of 23.5 meters for the city's lowest point. Xiangjiang River is the most important river in Changsha, from south to north throughout the territory, the length of about 75 km. The Xiangjiang River divides the city into two major parts, Hedong and Hexi. The east part of the city is mainly commercial and the Hexi is mainly cultural and educational. On 10 October 2001, the city government resident moved from Hedong Fanzheng Street to the Hexi View of Sandy Ridge, the force in the development of Hexi economy to balance the two sides of Changsha.
Situated in Yuelu District, Hunan Province, Yuelu Mountain is 300.8 meters above the sea level, occupying an area of 35.20 square kilometers. It is the last mountain in the 72 mountains of Hengshan Mountain, one the four destinations for enjoying maple landscape in China. It is the home to four core scenic parts such as Yuelu Mountain, Orange Island, Yuelu Academy, and Xinmin Institute. Therefore, it has been regarded as a rare scenic spot incorporating mountains, rivers, island, and city in the world, a national 5A-level scenic spot as well as a patriotism education base.
Located in the middle of Xiangjiang River facing the urban area of Changsha City, Orange Island is the largest island of Xiangjiang River surrounded by water, and a national key scenic spot.
Mawangdui Han Tombs
Mawangdui Han Tombs are tombs for Li Cang (a prime minister of Changsha State in early Western Han Dynasty) and his family in Changsha City. The discovery of this relics serves as a significant data for studying burial system, handicraft industry and technological development of early Han Dynasty as well as various facets of the Changsha State. And it was included as a national cultural heritage site on 3rd, May, 2013, one of the ten world ancient tombs in June, 2016.